identity

De l’identité numérique, du vivre ensemble

L’identité numérique,  associé à l’avènement social du réseau des réseaux, porte en son sein de nombreux enjeux, à la fois politiques (vie privée, surveillance, droit à l’oubli), économiques (valeur de l’autorité et de l’influence) et sociétaux (recrutement 2.0, maîtrise de son image, de sa réputation en ligne). Comment vivre au mieux ce nouvel environnement : en développant une culture de l’information de base auprès du plus grand nombre.

Des traces

L’identité numérique est le plus souvent définie comme la somme des traces liées à un sujet. En effet, dans un environnement numérique, « le signe, le message et le document sont appelés à être subsumés dans la catégorie des traces. Celle-ci ne désigne pas un nouveau type d’objet, mais un mode inédit de présence et d’efficacité, lié aux caractéristiques techniques et sociales des réseaux » [1] .Ces traces sont à étudier sous plusieurs angles :

–          Ce qu’elles disent (profil, navigation, publications) [2]

–          Comment on y accède (moteur) [2]

–          Comment elles se produisent (identité active / passive) [3]

Maîtriser son identité numérique implique par conséquent une compréhension des impacts du numérique sur les traces produites et induites par la présence du sujet en ligne.

Des réseaux sociaux

Si la question identitaire est devenue centrale, on le doit en grande partie au succès des réseaux sociaux numériques (plus d’1 milliard d’inscrits à Facebook !). Danah Boyd propose une définition de ces réseaux en trois points. Est appelé réseau social numérique un espace proposant :

–          un profil : où se décline la description du sujet ;

–          des commentaires : message du sujet ou de ses relations ;

–          une « navigabilité transversale » : possibilité à partir d’un profil d’accéder à d’autres profils.

D. Boyd ajoute à cette définition quatre caractéristiques qui modifient largement notre rapport à l’espace public :

–          la permanence (ou semi-permanence) : ce qui est inscrit reste inscrit sur une période longue ;

–          la reproductibilité : les données codées sont facilement copiables et diffusables ;

–          la traçabilité : il est aisé sur le réseau de remonter à la source d’un message ;

–          l’écoute invisible : il n’est pas possible de contrôler l’auditoire sur le réseau : en plus de leur aspect reproductible, nos messages sont consultables qu’on soit en ligne ou non. [4]

L’ensemble de ces spécificités demande au sujet un ensemble de compétence afin de garder le contrôle de son image. Ces habilités, à la fois techniques (c.a.d. non seulement comment fonctionnent les outils mais aussi quels sens portent-ils en eux-même [5]) et informationnelles (production, analyse, évaluation de l’information) sont regroupés sous le terme Culture de l’information.

De notre émancipation

Comme le dit O. Ertzscheid, « l’un des enjeux de premier plan de ce qu’on appelle « la société de l’information », est de permettre à chacun d’inverser la tendance entre l’identité numérique vécue et celle perçue, de reprendre le contrôle, de mesurer l’étendue de l’ensemble des traces identitaires et d’en circonscrire, si on le souhaite, le périmètre» [6] . Ainsi, du développement massif d’une culture de l’information pour tous dépend l’utilisation de l’espace public numérique en ce qu’il porte de pire ou de meilleur.

Si un troupeau de consommateur bien identifié, tracé et prévisible, peut faire rêver un marchand de bidules, le potentiel d’intelligence collective porté par l’environnement numérique et ses connexions multiples ne pourra être exploité qu’une fois les bases de cette culture de l’information posées et partagée par le plus grand nombre. Cependant, et comme le rappelle A. Serres, « le projet de développer une culture informationnelle à l’école et à l’université est bien un projet éducatif, au sens fort du terme, et la question des finalités de ce projet ne peut être esquivée : à quoi veut-on former, et pour faire quoi ? Si tout le monde sera d’accord pour dire qu’il faut former des citoyens critiques, des esprits libres, etc., ou bien des salariés bien adaptés au marché de l’emploi de l’économie de la connaissance, il s’agit souvent de fausses évidences et la conception de la  formation à l’information est sous-tendue par un certain nombre de présupposés, de valeurs, vaguement partagées, qui sont autant « d’allants de soi » à questionner »[7].  Développer une culture de l’information, comme tout travail éducatif, revient à poser les jalons d’un modèle de vivre ensemble. Interroger l’identité numérique, étudier les sociabilités nouvelles entre autres sur les RSN, réfléchir à comment rendre les individus toujours plus autonomes et disponibles à s’entraider sont autant de questions liées que nous continuerons à interroger en ce début d’année.

 

Références

[1] MERZEAU Louise, Du signe à la trace : l’information sur mesure in Hermès, 53,  2009, pp. 23-29

[2] et [6] ERTZSCHIED Olivier. Identité numérique et e-réputation, La Roche-sur Yon,  IUT de la Roche-sur-Yon, Département Information et communication, 2011

[3] L’article de B. DEVAUCHELLE, Identité passive, identité active, est disponible sur son site personnel http://www.brunodevauchelle.com/blog/?p=160

[4] BOYD, Danah, Réseaux sociaux : publics, privés ou quoi ?, in Documentaliste – Sciences de l’information, 2010, vol. 47, n°1

[5] SIMONDON Gilbert, Du mode d’existence des objets techniques, Paris : Aubier, 2001

[7] SERRES A., issue d’une intervention faite lors du séminaire « Enseignement et médias », organisé le 16 mai 2009 à Paris par Ars Industrialis, le CIEM et la revue Skhole.fr

 

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